USING AUTHENTICITY EVENT AS A FACTOR THAT AFFECTS EVENT ATTENDANCE IN IMPROVING BRANJANG TOURISM VILLAGE PROMOTION

 

Pranoto1, Haniek Listyorini2, Nina Mistriani3

Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Pariwisata Indonesia, Semarang

 

[email protected]1, [email protected]2, [email protected]3

 


Received: 27-10-2022������������������� ������������� Accepted: 05-11-2022��������������������� ����������� Published: 08-11-2022������

 

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the Covid-19 pandemic, many tourist villages are reluctant to develop their respective destinations. The manager of the Branjang Tourism Village, Semarang Regency, realized the importance of events in destination development by exploring the impact of event attendance on destination promotion. This study first aims to analyze the effect of the authenticity of the event on the attendance of the event. The second explores the impact of event attendance on destination promotion. The third examines the direct impact of actual authenticity on destination promotion. Fourth, prove the mediation of event attendance in the effect of event authenticity on destination promotion. Methods: To test this model, 100 respondents of tourists who visited the event were taken at the Branjangan Cultural Event in the Branjang Tourism Village. Then the data is processed using SEM PLS. Result: The authenticity of the event influences the attendance of the event with t statistic 7,488> 1,96. Authenticity Events influence destination promotion with a t-statistic value of 4.011 > 1.96. The presence of the event influences destination promotion with a statistical t value of 3.507> 1.96 and the authenticity of the event on destination promotion influences the presence of the event with a simultaneous value of 0.2880> 1.96. Conclusion: The results of the first study show that the authenticity of the event affects the attendance of the event; second, the presence of the event affects the promotion of the goal. Thirdly, event authenticity involves the promotion of goals, and event attendance mediates the effect of event authenticity on goal promotion.

Keywords: Event Authenticity, Event Attendance, Destination Promotion, Village Tourism.

 



Corresponding Author: Haniek Listyorini

E-mail: [email protected]

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INTRODUCTION

Since March 2020, Indonesia has felt the Covid-19 pandemic which has caused the government to impose restrictions on gatherings (Nasruddin & Haq, 2020). However, in line with the government's ability to overcome the spread of Covid-19, since October 2021, permits have been granted for socio-cultural activities such as organizing music events, cultural arts, exhibitions, etc. However, these activities must implement strict health protocols.

Previous research explained that events are considered necessary for the development of tourism in an area. Various East Java events bring domestic and foreign tourists (Prilia, 2018). Meanwhile, Banyuwangi Regency's strategy of diversity and authenticity of events, both food, sports, fashion and music events, has successfully become an essential destination in East Java (Brida, Disegna, & Osti, 2013) (Kurniawan, 2019). Central Java also provides evidence of events' importance for the destination's reputation. The Village-level Dieng Culture Festival (DCF) or the haircut ceremony "Anak Rambut Dreadlocks" developed into the most significant event in Central Java, even becoming one of Indonesia's most popular cultural events. The event's success can uplift the local culture and promote the destination (Prilia, 2018). Events as a destination promotion tool and also a tool to encourage tourist spending in the context of global competitiveness (Connell, Page, & Meyer, 2015) (Sinurat & Rudianto, 2022).

During the Covid-19 pandemic, many tourist villages are discouraged from developing their respective destinations. But the opening of meeting permits provides an opportunity for recovery strategies to increase visitation interest, introduce destination names and increase tourist spending. Travelers want to participate in cultural events (Surwiyanta, 2021). Elements of cultural tourism that can attract tourists include: language, society, handicrafts, food, music and art, history, livelihood, religion, and building architecture (Supriono, 2020).

The importance of events in destination development is realized by the manager of the Branjang Tourism Village, Semarang Regency. Branjang village has several agricultural traditions that are still preserved, namely Iriban, Tingkep Tandur, Nyadran and others. Traditional ceremonies are carried out to maintain customs but have not been used as a tourist attraction. Branjang village has traditional art groups with facilities and costumes, lumping horse dance groups, reog, various conventional dances, gejuk lesung music, karawitan, and tambourine. Children perform dancers and performers of music to adults. However, art is an exercise activity and has not been used as a cultural tourist attraction. Another potential is the creative economy field with handicrafts such as resin decorations, aquarium decorations, coconut bonsai, and typical culinary. The name branjang village is not yet widely known, and it has not brought many tourist visits. Although it has been promoted to social media and achieved the top 300 best tourist villages in the 2021 Indonesian Tourism Village Award, it has not produced tourist visits.

In addition to online promotion, destinations need to be promoted offline, among others, through events. To accelerate popularity and increase tourist visits, Branjang Village, together with STIEPARI Semarang, designed the "Branjangan Cultural Degree" event to introduce all the potential of tourist villages and increase visits. This increase in visits is expected to be a factor driving start-up tourism villages to become developing tourist villages.

This study first aimed to analyze the effect of event authenticity on event attendance. The second explores the impact of event attendance on destination promotion. The third examines the direct effect of actual authenticity on destination promotion. The fourth proves the mediation of event attendance in the influence of event authenticity on destination promotion. The results of this study are also expected to be a model for the promotion of other tourist villages.

 

METHOD

This research was conducted in Branjang Tourism Village, which held a 2-day Cultural Event in July 2022. This research method uses quantitative research. The entire population is visitors to the Branjangan cultural event, which the researcher cannot know for sure, so that the researcher will use a sample of a portion of tourists based on the Lemeshow formula used a selection of 100 visitors (Sulaju, Latif, Bakrie, & Milasari, 2021). Teknik sampling is based on accidental convenience sampling (Sugiyono, 2019), namely the comfort and willingness of tourists to fill out questionnaires when encountered at night tourist attractions or provide WhatsApp contact numbers. Next will be sent a google form questionnaire.

The data were processed using SPSS for descriptive statistics and SEM PLS and conducted to test data analysis requirements in the outer and inner models (Sugiyono, 2013). The criteria in the Outer Model using validity tests are carried out by measuring individual and simultaneous convergent validity and discriminant validity. The reliability test includes Cronbach Alpha and Composite Reliability. At the same time, the Inner Model criteria include R square, Q square, F square and Goodness of Fit (GoF). After the requirement test, it is continued with the hypothesis test of several effects of relationships between variables, namely the trial of direct and indirect associations (mediation effect).

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Model Measurement Evaluation (Outer Model)

In testing, outer models aim to see the validity and reliability of a model. This test analysis can be seen from the influence of factor loading, Average Variance Extracted (AVE), Discriminate Validity and Composite Reliability. Here are the results of the outer model test that shows the external loading value using the SmartPLS 3 analysis tool.

1.    Loading Factor

The aal stage in testing the validity of a model is to test the convergent validity, which can be seen from the loading factor for each construct indicator. The requirement for the needle to be declared valid is if the value of the loading factor > 0.7. The hand should be removed from a Model (Husein, 2015).

The results of the analysis of this research model can be seen in the figure below.

 

Figure 1. A logarithm Outer Model Results. Source: Processed primary data, 2022

 

When viewed from the figure above, the latent variable Event Authenticity with seven indicators, all indicators have a loading factor > 0.7. Then in the Event Attendance variable, all four hands have a loading factor > 0.7, and for the Destination Promotion variable, all four indicators have a loading factor > 0.7. So that it can be concluded from the results of the analysis showing that the loading factor of all items from the three variables has a value of > 0.7, so it can be said to be valid.


 

2.    Average Variance Extracted (AVE)

AVE is a value that is also used in Convergent Validity tests. In the study results, the expected AVE value to be declared valid is > 0.5.

 

Table 1. AVE Output Results The Effect of Event Authenticity on Event Attendance and Destination Promotion

Construct

AVE

X Event Authenticity

0.818

Y Event Attendance

0.624

Z Destination Promotion

0.777

Source: Primary data processed, 2022.

 

In the table above, all the constructs of latent variables have a value of > 0.5, so they are declared valid.

3.    Discriminate validity

Because there is no problem with convergent validity, an issue related to discriminant validity is then tested. This test is diffused to test the validity of a model. The Discriminate validity value is seen hammering the cross-loading value, which indicates the magnitude of the correlation between the construct and its indicators and indicators from other constructs. The results of cross-loading in the analysis of discriminate validity are found in Table 2 below.

 

Table 2. Cross Loading Value

Indicators

Event Attendance

(AT)

Event Authenticity

(0T)

Destination

Promotion

(PR)

Korelasi

 

Ket

OT1

0.349

0,729

0,290

OT1>AT, PR

Valid

OT2

0.524

0,774

0,553

OT2>AT, PR

Valid

OT3

0,531

0,841

0,653

OT3>AT, PR

Valid

OT4

0,479

0,822

0,569

OT4>AT, PR

Valid

OT5

0,461

0,729

0,362

OT5>AT, PR

Valid

OT6

0,385

0,737

0,371

OT6>AT, PR

Valid

OT7

0,597

0,884

0,705

OT7>AT, PR

Valid

AT1

0,927

0,515

0,600

AT1>OT, PR

Valid

AT2

0,822

0,449

0,327

AT2>OT, PR

Valid

AT3

0,965

0,570

0,661

AT3>OT, PR

Valid

AT4

0,895

0,650

0,731

AT4>OT, PR

Valid

PR1

0.584

0,599

0,900

PR1>OT, AT

Valid

PR2

0,689

0,602

0,919

PR2>OT, AT

Valid

PR3

0,468

0,528

0,821

PR3>OT, AT

Valid

PR4

0,600

0,607

0,883

PR4>OT, AT

Valid

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Primary data processed, 2022.

 

These results show that each indicator appropriately explains the construct of their respective variables and proves that the interest in the validity of all items is valid.


 

4.    Composite Reliability

To ensure no problems related to measurements, the latest step in evaluating the outer model is to test the unidimensionality of the model. This unidimensionality test was carried out using composite reliability and Cronbach alpha. For the three variables, the cut-off value is 0.7. The results of the data processing are presented in the following table:

 

Table 3. Composite Reliability

Construct

Composite Reliability

X Event Authenticity

0,920

Y Event Attendance

0,947

Z Destination Promotion

0,933

Source: Primary data processed, 2022

 

The table above shows that all constructs have a composite reliability value above 0.7. Therefore, no problems are found in the unidimensionality of the influence of event authenticity on event attendance and Destination promotion of the Branjanga Cultural Title, Semarang Regency. All variables are declared reliable.

Evaluation of Inner Model Testing

1.    Coefficient of Determination R2(R-Square)

The coefficient can know the goodness of fit in PLS of determination (R-Square) in the regression analysis Based on the R-square table as follows:

 

Table 4. R-Square

Item

R-Square

R-Square Adjusted

Event Attendance

0,379

0,372

Destination Promotion

0,551

0,542

Source: Primary data processed, 2022

 

The table above shows that the R2 value of Event Attendance is 0.379. The deal indicates that 37.9% of the Event Authenticity variablecan affect event attendance, and the remaining 62.1% is influenced by other variables outside the variables in this study

The R2 value of Destination promotion is 0.551. This value shows that 55.1% of the Event Authenticity and Attendance variables can affect Destination Promotion, and the rest are influenced by other variables outside the variables in this study.

Hypothesis Testing

1.    T-statistical coefficient

PLS-SEM Bootsrapping Test To see if a hypothesis can be accepted or rejected, among others, by paying attention to the significance values between constructs, t - statistics and p - values. In the bootstrap resampling method in this study, the significance value used (two-tailed) t - value is 1.96 (significance level = 5%), provided that the value of t - statistics must be greater than the value of t-table 1.96. The table below shows a picture of the path hypothesis as follows:

Figure 2. t-statistical value of Bootstrapping Results

 

Based on the picture above, the t-statistical value of the influence of local authenticity events on event attendance is 7,488 > t table 1.96 shows the effect of significant authenticity events on event attendance at the Branjangan Cultural Event, Semarang Regency.

The t-statistical value of the effect of event authenticity on destination promotion is 3,507 > t-table 1.96; this shows the influence of event authenticity is significant on destination promotion.

The t-statistical value of event attendance on destination promotion is 4,011> t table 1.96 indicates that the effect of event attendance is significant on destination promotion.

 

Table 5. Significance test Result

No

Indicator

Original

Sample

Sample

Mean

Standard Deviation

t-statistic

P

value

H1

OT EA

0,615

0,629

0,0082

7,488

0,000

H2

OT DP

0,404

0,429

0,101

4,011

0,000

H3

EA DP

0,421

0,398

0,120

3,507

0,000

H4

OT EA DP

0,259

0,252

0,090

2,880

0,004

Source: Primary data processed, 2022

 

Hypothesis 1

:

The Effect of Event Authenticity on Event Attendance

Result

:

Hypothesis testing showed a t - statistical value of 7.488>1.96 and a p-value of 0.000 < 0.05.

Conclusion

:

Based on the calculation results above, it can be concluded that hypothesis 1 is accepted, and it is stated that there is a significant influence of event authenticity on event attendance.

Hypothesis 2

:

The Effect of Authenticity Events on Destination Promotion

Result

:

Hypothesis testing showed a t - statistical value of 4.011> 1.96 and a p-value of 0.000 <0.05

Conclusion

:

Based on the results of the calculations above, it can be concluded that hypothesis 2 is accepted, and it is stated that there is a significant influence of event authenticity on destination promotion.

Hypothesis 3

:

The effect of event attendance on destination promotion

Result

:

Hypothesis testing showed a t - a statistical value of 3.507> 1.96 and a p-value of 0.000 < 0.05.

Conclusion

:

Based on the results of the calculations above, it can be concluded that hypothesis 3 is accepted, and it is stated that there is a significant influence of event attendance on destination promotion.

Hypothesis 4

:

The effect of authenticity events on destination promotion through event attendance.�������

Result

:

Partial hypothesis testing showed a value of t - event authenticity independent variable statistics against the dependent inconsistent destination promotion of 3.507 > 1.96 and a weight of t - independent variable statistics against the intervening event attendance variable of 7.448 > 1.96. Simultaneous hypothesis testing showed a t - the statistical value of the event authenticity independent variable against the destination promotion dependent variable through the intervening event attendance variable of 0.2880 > 1.96.

Conclusion

:

Based on the results of the calculations above, it can be concluded that hypothesis 4 is accepted, and it is stated that there is a significant influence of event authenticity on destination promotion through event attendance.

SEM Analysis With Mediation Effect Testing of the mediation effect in PLS using the procedure developed by (Baron and Kenny 1998 in Ghozali and Latan 2015) with the following stages :

1.    The first model tests the influence of independent variables on dependent variables and should be significant at t - statistics 1.96.

2.    The second model tests the influence of independent variables on intervening variables and should be significant at t - statistics 1.96.

3.    The third model simultaneously tests the influence of independent and intervening variables on dependent variables. In this test, if the effect of independent variables on dependent variables is significant at t -statistics 1.96, then the intervening variables are shown to mediate the influence of independent variables on dependent variables.

 

Table 6. Simultaneous Significance Test

Construct

Original

Sample

Sample

Mean

Standard Deviation

t-statistic

P

Value

OT EA DP

0,259

0,252

0,090

2,880

0,004

 

The first hypothesis is accepted, which means there is an influence; this means that there is a need for an authenticity event or an authenticity event typical of the destination so that the wider community is willing to attend (event attendance) in the Branjangan cultural title. The results of the study support previous research conducted by (Christou, Sharpley, & Farmaki, 2018) and research (Robinson & Clifford, 2012) related to the influence of authenticity events on event attendance which can be seen from the amount of tourist spending on a cultural event and culinary tourism event.

Hypothesis 2 is accepted, which means influential, and this means that holding an event authentically unique to the destination will further increase the popularity of the goal. The tourist community likes to have events authentically special to the destination, so they remember the event and are willing to share event information with others. The results of the study support previous research conducted by (Getz, 2008)and (Jago, Chalip, Brown, Mules, & Ali, 2003) which stated that events affect destination promotion by strengthening destination branding.

Hypothesis 3 is accepted, which means that event attendance will increase the promotion of a destination. Community presence at an event is essential to form a strong destination promotion. Destinations that hold an event can attract many tourists to attend the event. This is a form of advertising for a goal. The results of the research support previous research conducted by (Christou et al., 2018), which stated that event attendance affects the rise of a destination with attendance so that tourists are willing to share information with others, so that destination promotion strengthens.

Hypothesis 4 is accepted, which means influential; this means that the more attractive an event will be, fully able to influence the promotion of the destination. The authenticity of this event also affects the presence of the community in the event, which further leads to an increase in destination promotion.

 

CONCLUSION

Based on the results of the research above, it can be concluded as follows: There is an effect of authenticity events on event attendance so that the wider community wants to attend the Branjangan cultural event. Promotional events affect destination branding. The influence of the presence of the event will increase the promotion of a destination. The more interesting an event, the more influential it will be on increasing the promotion of the destination.

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